How Do They Take The Caffeine Out Of Coffee?


How Decaf Coffee Is Made

The ill effects of caffeine have always been a concern for coffee lovers. However, it is possible to remove 99% of caffeine from coffee beans. So, how is coffee decaffeinated?

There are several ways to prepare decaf coffee. The underlying principle behind all methods is same – treating the coffee beans with some solvent that absorbs caffeine. The earliest method was invented by Ludwig Roselius. It involved steaming the green coffee beans in brine and treating them with benzene, a hydrocarbon. Due to benzene’s potential health risks, this method is eventually discarded.

In the most popular decaf method used today, coffee beans are initially steamed for about 30 minutes so that their pores open up. Then, they are rinsed continuously with either ethyl acetate or dichloromethane for nearly ten hours to remove caffeine. The remaining solvent laden with caffeine is then drained away. The beans are steamed further for another 10 hours to remove any residues of solvent. This process may be considered natural if ethyl acetate derived from various fruits and vegetables is used. But, in practise this component is artificially synthesized.

In this more recent method developed at the Max Plank Institute, carbon dioxide is used as the solvent.

Firstly, water soaked coffee beans are kept in an extraction vessel which is kept sealed. Liquid carbon dioxide is then forced into the beans at a pressure of 1,000 pound/(sq.inch). The solvent absorbs the caffeine and leaves behind flavouring components. The caffeine-filled solvent is then transferred to an absorption chamber where the pressure is released. So, the carbon dioxide returns to its original gaseous state causing it to evaporate leaving behind most of the caffeine. The gaseous carbon dioxide is now passed through charcoal to remove the remaining caffeine.

Finally, pure carbon dioxide is sent back into a pressurized container to be used on a fresh batch of beans. This method is safe as it does not involve using any chemical solvents.
Another popular method named Swiss Water Process uses water as solvent to remove caffeine. In fact, the world’s only organic certified decaffeination facility based in Burnaby, Canada is based on this method. It is solely based on solubility and osmosis.

How Much of Caffeine is Too Much?
Up to 400 mg of caffeine per day is termed as safe for healthy adults. That is the amount present in four cups of coffee. This suggests that drinking a cup of coffee in the morning may not have devastating effects on health. Decaffeinated drinks are suitable for caffeine sensitive people – those having high blood pressure, anxiety disorders, depression or cardiac diseases. People with severe coffee addiction can also benefit from decaf drinks.


Space Tourism: Seeing Earth In Its Entirety


Private space tourism could become a business of over one billion dollars over the next 10 years, according to a Federal Aviation Administration representative American (FAA), George Niedl cited by Reuters.
NASA has hired two private companies, Space Exploration Technologies and Orbital Sciences Corp. to carry supplies and scientific equipment to the International Space Station. Also suborbital tourist flights are a reality in the near future. Tourists in space will be taken up at an altitude of 100 kilometres where they can feel  a few minutes of weightlessness and will see the Earth on black background, build the space.

Rocket-propelled aircraft that will make suborbital flights and new space capsules are built and tested now entering into service in 2013 or 2014.

“Based on market research, we expect this activity to become an industry worth $ 1 billion over the next 10 years,” said George Nield, associate administrator of the Office of the FAA Private Space Transport in American before the committee in charge of space and aeronautics.

“It’s a new and growing industry. If you look at the last 25 years, almost all moves are based on the same objective – to put another satellite into orbit. There are these new business opportunities appearing on the horizon,” he added.

A private company, Virgin Galactic, British billionaire Richard Branson belonging has already collected 60 million dollars in deposits for future tourist flights into space. Such flight costs $ 200,000 per person.

“We can not accurately predict when they start these flights, but it is very, very clear that they will become a reality within the next two years,” the American official said.

Visiting the stratosphere with a special airplane

Anyone will be able to visit the stratosphere in 2015 when a private airplane with two seats will be released by an American company. The miracle plane can perform up to four flights per day and benefits from a unique design form. Each eager amateur will be accompanied by an astronaut with experience. However, the trip will not be cheap: about 95,000 dollars per person.

However, the price is twice as low as the current company that deals with space tourism and which belongs to the multi-millionaire Sir Richard Branson. His company will provide such flights starting next year.

The Chinese are interested in space tourism too

More than 300 Chinese and have booked tickets that cost nearly $ 100,000 for a five minute journey into space. Dutch company Space Expedition Corp. (SXC) put on sale a bunch of tickets on the online auction site Taobao, making happy 305 Chinese who were to perform their first space trip.

The trip will be made with a two-seater shuttle and will last around 5-6 minutes, giving those interested in space tourism a rare sight as well as the chance to experience state of weightlessness.

Tickets were sold for 599,999 yuan ($ 96,000), four entrepreneurs from Chengdu city and two from the commercial center of Shanghai being among the first people who were enrolled in unusual trip.

Selling of tickets was available only for June 12, said a spokesman for the site, but it was not circulated any date for the trip’s performing. The participants – who must weigh less than 125 kg – will perform flight simulation and preparation for weightlessness before travelling.

China has its own military space program, which in recent decades has sent astronauts into orbit and a rover on the moon, but has so far no commercial companies to fly in space.

This being said not only Chinese are interested in space tourism, but people from all over the world, and large corporations are willing to satisfy their dreams as soon as possible.

Are you eligible? 

Before starting the adventure of a life time, the astronaut’s copilot must meet some criteria. The person must be at least 18 years and be fit physically and mentally. Health status will be examined by testing blood pressure, vision, hearing and reflexes – costs that can be covered by the tour operator. Preparation also includes a thorough briefing on the scientific mission and its purpose.

Once these requirements have been met, the road from dream to reality is travelled easily. Only 500 people have been in the position of experiencing a space trip until now.

An unimaginable experience 

It is when visitors experience the propulsion force that is so familiar to F1 pilots, which ends at incredibly fast speeds and allows guests to benefit from an immersive experience. Then comes the climbing process. Quickly and steep, as you move at high speed to the sky, the enormous dome offers spectacular scenery.

After a minute you exceed the speed of sound. Departure itself is a wonderful experience. Incredible acceleration generated by the four-rocket motors of the shuttle enable visitors to rejoice from unique sensations.

Shortly they become witnesses of the immensity and total silence of the universe. Engines stop, all you have to do is enjoy the view and the complete lack of sound (…). How many new emotions can support a human in such short time? You will find the answer if you choose to subscribe for such trip.

From a height of 100km begins the flight gliding back to Earth. At an altitude of 30 km, Lynx spacecraft begins to re-enter in the atmosphere, the process assisted by the unique roaring of the rocket engines. These are the marvels of space tourism.



Music Can Soothe The Brains Of Aging Persons

It looks like that some of the effective medicines do not arrive in the form of pills or syrups. Sometimes, it arrives through a pair of headphones. Music has the ability to awaken the memories inside the ageing brains and the emotions of those who are suffering from serious medical issues like Alzheimer’s and others. Many film makers like Michael Rossato Bennet have attempted to portray the influence of music on individual’s life. The movie by this film maker shows the patients living in nursing homes and other places that have patients who are suffering from dementia and spend time all alone. An aged man called Henry also remains adrift until he begins to hear his favourite music through a pair of headphones. The headphones also play some of the old hits like Cab Calloway, the jazz singer’s oldies.

Music Can Soothe The Brains Of Aging Persons

Alive Inside: The power of music

Henry pops open his eyes as soon as he listens to music and begins to sing and moves in his wheel chair. It is evident that music has transformed both his mind and body. The awakening of Henry through music went viral in the year 2012 as soon as it was released as short clip and was named as Alive Inside. This video clip features many instances of music kindling the old memories, thoughts that were long buried and their emotions of the aged people. A soothing thing about the video clip is that it shows the outbursts of joy while playing with the sadness in a mild way making the viewers hooked to it.


What science says about music?

Scientists have already proved the effects of music on human brain and hence such awakenings created by music are not surprising. In the documentary, Oliver Sacks, the neurologist states that music is a powerful tool to tap old memories inside the brain. The research conducted by neurologists also state that music evokes various region of your brain such as cortex region, amygdale and hippocampus. Molecules which transmit the signals to the brain such as endorphins, growth factors and dopamine tend to change in response to the music. In addition, the effects of music spread all over the body and energises it. It can also lower the risk of high blood pressure, regulates the breathing rate and heart rate.

Hence it is sure that music has the power to make old people experience the joy of their past years.